Korean Service
Purple Heart


Nov 14, 1947 U.N. Resolution to remove troops from Korea after national elections.
Feb 8, 1948 North Korean People's Army (NK) officially activated by Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Aug 15, 1948 The Republic of Korea was proclaimed. Syngman Rhee was elected first president, (by a legislature formed by popular elections conducted in May).
Sept 9, 1948 Democratic People's Republic of Korea claims jurisdiction over all Korea
June 29, 1949 Last US troops leave South Korea
Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG, 200 men) formed


June 1 NK strength at 135,000, with seven assault divisions and 150 T34 tanks
June 25
Korean time
NK invades Republic of South Korea (ROK) without warning
June 25
New York time
UN Security Council demands NK stop its attack and return to its borders
June 29 ROK Capitol Seoul falls, bridges across Han river destroyed. Most of ROK army's best, with their equipment, trapped on northern side
June 30 NK 3rd Division (NK-3) crosses Han River; NK drives down Peninsula
June 30 President Truman commits US Troops to enforce UN demand
July 7 United Nations Command created, under General Douglas MacArthur
July 12 US Eighth Army takes command of ground operations in Korea
July - August Savage fighting begins in the Southern Peninsula, eventually settling around the Pusan Perimeter. US garrison troops, totally unprepared for infantry warfare against a veteran, ferocious enemy, suffer terrible casualties and many defeats. Stiffened by veteran infantry regulars, including the 1st Marine Brigade, the Perimeter was eventually stabilized in some of the most vicious fighting of the entire three year war.
August 20 The British War Office announced that it was dispatching at once to Korea an infantry force of two Battalions, from Hong Kong. These were the the First Battalion of the Middlesex Regiment, and the First Battalion of the Argyll and Sutherland Regiments, constituting the nucleus of the 27th British Infantry Brigade.
August 26 'K Force' recruiting campaign launched.
August 29 British Commonwealth 27th Brigade lands at Pusan, moving at once to Kyongsan to become an integral part of the Eighth Army
August - Sept 15 Continuous savage infantry battles around Pusan Perimeter. Complete air superiority and powerful tank and artillery reinforcements help the gradually toughening infantry forces effectively secure the Peninsula.
Sept 15 Inchon Landings
Sept 16-19 UN breaks the Pusan Perimeter cordon
Sept 19-29 Embattled Seoul recaptured in the north in savage infantry battles, by 1st and 5th Marines. Mop-up starts in the south
Sept 27 MacArthur given permission to cross the 38th Parallel into North Korea
Sept 28 Third Battalion Royal Australian Army, led by 30-year-old WWII veteran Lt. Col. Charlie Green, arrives at Pusan 29, joining the 27th Bgde which then is named the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade.
Sept 30 ROK troops cross 38th Parallel
October 3 Taking first casualties, 3RAR moves to Seoul and North as part of 27th. brigade
October 9 1st Cavalry Division leads UN general assault across 38th Parallel
October 13 Unknown to UN leaders, unobserved by UN Aircraft, Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) cross the Yalu to begin China's support of North Korea
October 22 3RAR fights first major action at Yongju.
In their first battle, called "The Apple Orchard", 3 RAR went to the relief of the US 187th Airborne Regiment.
October 25-26 3 RAR crosses the Chongchon river at Anju.
Their second major action, on October 25th at Pakchon, was called the "Battle of the Broken Bridge." Using the principle of surprise to deal with North Korean opposition, 3RAR thrust across a half-destroyed bridge in the dark, engaging the North Korean defenders and driving them back, suffering 8 KIA 22WIA.
October 29 The 27 BCB Brigade , with the Australians in the lead, attacked towards Chongju. Heavy fighting when 3RAR encounters stiff oposition. Chongju.
October 30 3RAR C.O. Lt.Col. C.H.Green mortally wounded.
October 29 - Nov 6 CCF 39th Army, around 30,000 lightly armed troops, opens China's First Phase offensive, by defeating 1st Cav and the ROKs, driving UN forces back to the Chongchon river. In the east, the 7th Marine Regiment destroys the CCF 124th Division, which left 1500 dead on the field, in the only major UN success
Nov 3 Brigade, under orders, falls back into position holding left sector Sinanju-Anju bridgehead
Nov 5-6 3RAR blocks major enemy offencive south of Pakchon. Major I.B.Ferguson appointed C.O.
November 25 UN offensive begins from the Chongchon river to end the war by Christmas
Nov 26-30 China launches its Second Phase offensive. US 2nd and 25th Divisions are defeated and begin general Eighth Army retreat in the west
Nov 27-30 Four CCF Armies attack 1st Marine Division and 7th Infantry Division at the Chosin Reservoir.
Nov 27-28 Brigade moved to Kunu-ri, protect crumbling right flank
Nov 29 RAR protects Taedong River ferry crossing
Nov 30 2nd. U.S.Division ambushed near Yongwon-ni. 27th.brigade assists in keeping road open South of Yongwon-ni
Nov 30 -
Dec 11
1st Marine Division fights through encircling CCF forces to reach our 3rd Infantry Division lines. The 10 CCF divisions attacking in Chosin were so wasted they never again saw action in the KW
Dec 1-3 Brigade assists 7th. U.S. Cav. protect Taedong River Xing
Dec 2 RAR deploys around crossing near Yopa-ri
Dec 3 RAR demolishes bridge and withdraws
Dec 4-8 RAR arrives at Hayu-ri, 150 kilometres South. Dec 6 Singye, Dec 8 Sibyon-ni
Dec 9-10 Guards pass Kumchon road
Dec 11 Brigade moves 130 Ks. South to Uijongbu
Dec 13 RAR encounters guerrillas near summit of 924 metre peak, Unak San N/E of Uijongbu
December 11 - 25 UN Naval forces evacuated from Hungnam
December 14 UN passes a Cease Fire resolution
December 31 MiG-15 jets begin attacking UN airplanes over North Korea
December 30 Chinese Third Phase offensive begins


Jan 1 3RAR holds blocking position at Tokchon
Jan 3 CCF and NK renew their offensive. Seoul is again abandoned.
Brigade becomes rearguard for withdrawl
Jan 4-5 Brigade withdraws 160 Ks. through Ichon to Yoda-nae
Jan 20 RAR in Haengsimchon, patrolling forward to Ichon. 5 taken POW
January 14 Ridgway stabilizes UN lines along the 37th parallel
Jan 20 RAR occupies Ichon.
January 25 UN counterattacks in the "Ridgway" offensive, Operation Thunderbolt, over a carpet of dead CCF
February 1 UN resolution to end the Korean War
Feb 11-12 CCF counterattacks at Hoengsong in Fourth Phase offensive, destroys ROK 8th Div.
February 14 23rd RCT and French Infantry Battalion stop CCF at Chipyong-ni. Ridgway says the successful defense of the Wonju line is a "turning point"
Feb 15 RAR involved in heavy fighting near Chuam-ni
Feb 16-17 Chinese withdraw from Chuam-ni - Chipyong-ni sector
Feb 24-27 RAR captures hill 614
February 18 -
March 17
Ridgway's Operation Killer. IX Corps has limited success clearing CCF from Chipyong-ni and mountains to east.
March 6-31 Eighth Army re-crosses the Han in Operation Ripper. Chunchon recaptured and line Idaho reached against weak opposition, as CCF regroups.
Mar 7 RAR and Canadians involved in heavy fighting for hills 410 and 532. Operation Woodbine. RAR suffers heavy casualties
Mar 11 RAR action near Chisan during advance to Albany line
Mar 12 Hill 703 captured by C coy. RAR
March 18 UN forces take Seoul once again
Mar 22-31 Brigade advances during Operation Courageous to Benton Line
April 1-22 Operations Rugged and Dauntless drive 15 miles north of Line Kansas
Mar 3-15 Brigade participates in Operation Rugged, and advance to Kapyong
April 11 Truman relieves General MacArthur. General Ridgway takes FECOM
Mar 22-31 Brigade advances during Operation Courageous to Benton Line
April 11 Move to Utah Line begins
April 14 RAR A coy. takes hill Sardine
April 15 RAR C coy. takes hill Salmon
April 15 General James Van Fleet assumes command of Eighth Army
April 21 8th. army advances to Iron Triangle
April 22 CCF begins Fifth Phase spring offensive, smash Line Kansas, drive towards Seoul
April 23 Battle of Kapyong for RAR begins. Hold position and were awarded U.S.Presidential Unit Citation. Casualties from this action were: 31 KIA. 59 WIA and 3 POW. From Two days of intence fighting, this was a remarkably low figure
April 24-25 Third Batt Royal Australian Regiment (3RAR), Second Batt Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI), and A Company 72nd US Medium Tank Batt, heavily outnumbered, stop CCF at Kapyong Valley.
April 26 RAR transfered to the 28th. British Commonwealth Brigade
April 30 CCF and NK pull back to re-group
May 1 28 brigade moves to Yangsu-ri takes up defensive position
May 10 -
June 5
Second CCF Spring Offensive begins, with the "May Massacre"
May 17 Communists launch 2nd effort Fifth Phase
May 20 CCF offensive stopped, after penetrating 30 miles on the east-central region
May 20-31 28 brigade advances close to Imjin River
May 23 -
June 1
UN resumes attack north, regains both Line Kansas and the Wyoming bulge by mid-June. CCF 180th Division totally destroyed.
June-July British Commonwealth division formed
June 7 RAR patrols accross Imjin to win control of Northern bank
June 13, 1951
July 27, 1953
Washington orders Van Fleet to halt the attack and wait for armistice negotiations. UN forms a Main Line of Resistance (MLR)
The Communists use respite from our relentless assault to recoup their heavy losses, and build up positions opposite to MLR.
Toward the end of the KW, both sides often cannonade one another with artillery barrages exceeding those of WWI or WWII
July 7 Lt. Col. F.G.Hassett takes command 3RAR
Sept 7 RAR seizes bridgehead accross Imjin river
October 3-23 Operation Commando. Five UN Divisions, including the British Commonwealth Division, attack elements of Four CCF Armies, to correct a sag along I Corps and X Corps boundaries. In the successful but savage fighting, I Corps estimates 21,000 CCF casualties, and over 4,000 UN casualties.
Oct 3 Operation Commando launched. RAR captures hill 199
Oct 4 RAR helps capture hill 355 from east after heavy fighting
Oct 5 RAR gains summit hill 317. (maryang san)
Oct 7 RAR drives towards 'The Hinge' on 317, and beats off strong counter-attacks.
Oct 8 Chinese abandon both 317 and 217
Oct 9 RAR moves to Eastern flank of 317 and beat off strong attacks, begins preparing strong defences, begins patrolling forward
Nov 1951
to April 1952
Stalemate on the MLR. Truce talks at Panmunjom go on and on
Nov 4 Chinese attack in strength, and recapture 317 from K.O.S.B.s. four weeks after RAR captured it.
Nov 5 RAR launches diversionary attack on hill 'Baldy'
Nov 20-21 Chinese launch probe attacks RAR positions
Nov 28 28 brigade withdrawn into reserve
Dec 4 General Van Fleet presents RAR with Kapyong Presidential Citation


Jan RAR Occupies positions on hills in sector of divisional line near 227, on 159 and 210
Jan 26-27 RAR tries unsuccessfully to capture 227
Mar - April Mar 3, 1RAR leaves from Australia. Arrives Pusan April 6. June 1, 1RAR joins 28 brigade
Jun 27-29 Australian Brigadeer T.J.Daly takes over 28 brigade
June 29 brigade moves to Western sector of divisional line
July 2 1RAR raids Chinese on 227. Operation Blaze. Lt. Col. R.L.Hughes takes command of 3RAR
Aug 13-14 B coy. 3RAR attack hill 75. Operation Buffalo. Repulsed in bloody hand-to-hand fighting.
October 6-15 Battle of White Horse Hill - ROK 9th Division inflicts 10,000 casualties on CCF while repelling repeated ferocious assaults, helped largely by information from Chinese deserters.
Oct 25 3RAR detached briefly to 29th. brigade
Nov 2-30 1RAR regains control of area forward of 355 by heavy and determined patrolling
Nov 2 - Jan 31 28 brigade occupies Eastern sector
Dec 11 - 12 1RAR launch Operation Fauna to capture prisoners and destroy enemy defence systems
December -
Stalemate continues, President-Elect Eisenhower visits, deadly small-unit battles continue


Jan 31 Commonwealth division goes to reserve positions
March -
More savage fighting around Old Baldy, T-bone, outpost Eerie and Pork Chop. CCF-141 and CCF-67 take the Old Baldy - Pork Chop region from 7th Infantry Division and their Colombian Battalion, and hold it in a vicious struggle. Exchanging hundreds of thousands of artillery rounds, the CCF took the Vegas and Reno outputs from the 5th Marines on March 26, but the Marines re-took Vegas and held it against determined attacks until the CCF broke off the action.
Mar 14 Lt. Col. A.L.MacDonald takes command of 3RAR
Mar 21 2RAR relieves 1RAR
Apr 8 Commonwealth division returns to line.28 brigade Eastern Flank
May 5 2RAR relieves Royal Fusiliers vicinity of hill 159
May 7 3RAR relieves Durham Light Infantry on hill 355
May 13 3RAR, holding "Little Gibraltar" continued its aggressive patrols.
During this time occurred one of the few instances where a still-capable Australian fighting force abandoned some of their mates to fight and die alone.
May 27 Chinese attack 2RAR forward positions
May 29 3RAR relieved by Durhams on 355
June 14 Communist attack drives back ROK positions
June 16 3RAR relieves 2RAR
June 18 ROKs release 27,000 NK POWs who refuse repatriation. Communists again break off truce talks
June 25 CCF sends 3 armies, almost 100,000 troops, against 5 ROK divisions totaling half their number, driving the ROKs back several thousand yards. The CCF drive stops under staggering UN artillery barrages, about 2.7 million rounds in June alone.
July 9-10 Brigade moves to 'The Hook'
July 10 Truce talks resume after UN assures ROK acceptance of cease-fire terms
July 24-25 Chinese launch heavy attacks on 'The Hook'. U.S.Marines adjoining 2RAR withstand and hold.
July 27 Cease-fire signed. Armistice takes effect at 10pm.
September 4 Repatriation of POWs starts at Freedom Village, Panmunjom

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

A partial price list: 54,246 Americans, died during the Korean War; 33,629 were killed in action. In addition, 228,000 Korean soldiers and untold numbers of civilians, 717 Turkish soldiers, and 1,109 soldiers of the United Kingdom, and many other UN volunteers gave their lives, and over 110,000 American were wounded and MIA.

Over 53,000 ROK and UN troops, including over 8,000 Americans, are MIA. One assumes the great majority of them were murdered by North Korean soldiers after surrendering, or being found wounded.

American estimates of enemy casualties, including prisoners, exceed 1,500,000, of which 900,000, almost two-thirds, were Chinese. Other estimates are higher, official Chinese figures are much lower.

Half of our dead were killed after the truce talks began. Artillery concentrations on the small outposts and contested hills of the MLR exceeded anything in WWI or WWII; typically a thousand rounds exploding in 10 minutes or so, followed by battalion- and regiment-scale assaults against positions scarcely large enough to hold a company. The Marines fought for Bunker Hill, Reno, Carson and Vegas; the ROKs for Sniper Ridge, Triangle Hill and Big Nori; our 2nd Division fought for Old Baldy, Arrowhead and Pork Chop, as did our 7th Division in their turn.

Dozens of other obscure, torn landscapes soaked the blood of other valliant infantrymen.

In this manner was half the butcher's bill paid while people talked and postured, at Panmunjom.

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