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The .30-06 M1 Garand Rifle and Manuals

The semiautomatic M1 Garand, firing the .30-06 cartridge from a 8-round en bloc clip at 2800 fps muzzle velocity with 2692 ft-lb muzzle energy, has an effective range 400 meters using the M84 scope and a max range of 3200 meters. Fully loaded, with dense wood stock and cleaning kit, the M1 weighed 11-1/4 lbs. The only rifle with fully adjustable (windage and elevation) rear sights, battle zero was set for 200 yards. Going into production in 1936, the M1 was the designated US service rifle of World War II and the Korean War.

TM 9-1005-222-12: M1, M1C, M1D Operation, Maintenance (1969)

FM 23-5 - (MAY 1965) U.S. Army Field Manual for the U.S. Rifle, Cal. .30, M1

TM 9-1275 - (JUNE 1947) - Maintenance U.S. Rifles, Cal. .30, M1, M1C, M1D

Tech Manuals: FM7-10: Rifle Company, Rifle Regiment

TM9-2200: Technical Manual for WWII Small Arms

M1C Sniper rifle

M1C sniper rifle in Korea, note scope offset since the M1 is clip loaded, not magazine like the M14.


US Rifle Caliber .30 M1 Garand

M1 Skirmish Line

25th Infantry Division Front South of Ch'orwon, 1951. By "front" read skirmisher lines.

To Zero the M1

m1c and m1d

M1C Sniper Rifle

The M1C shown in the above link mounted either a M81, M82 or M84 scope, a T4 leather cheek pad, and an M2 conical flash hider. The U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M1C as their official sniper rifle in 1951.

The M1D shown in lower picture mounts a prong T-37 flash suppressor.

Cone Flash Suppressor

Cone suppressor

M1 QD Flash Suppressor

M1 QD Flash Hider

T-37 Flash Suppressor

T-37 prong flash suppressor.

Flash suppressors reduce the flash by rapidly cooling the gases as they leave the barrel, reducing the gas density and temperature and correspondingly the brightness of the flash. Obviously this is entirely to protect night vision of the shooter, not try to hide him from the shootee.

Our Commonwealth Division comrades did not use flash protectors on their Lee Enfields.

M1 Cone Flash Suppressor

Marines lead Operation Killer, 2/51

The Marine in the right photo has just helped capture a Chinese outpost, killing one of its defenders, with an M1 mounting the cone suppressor.

The The original rear sight of the M1 would not hold adjustments very well, so a locking bar was added in late 1942 which could be tightened after sights were set.


M14, replacement for M1

The 7.62 mm M-14 rifle is a 20-round detachable box magazine-fed, gas operated shoulder weapon, primarily intended for semi-automatic fire. The lighter weight M-14 replaced the M1 and M1918A2 BAR in 1957. A robust and deadly weapon, it was still considered by some to be too heavy, and its accuracy fell off in full automatic (750 rounds a minute). For years it was standard issue for Marines but it was replaced in all the services by the late-1960s by the 5.56mm M16A1.

The M14A1 was called the Squad Automatic Weapon. The M14A1 had a pistol grip, a different flash suppressor, and a light bipod.

There is still heated debate between those who used both the M14 and M16 as to which is the better in actual combat. For sure, very few enemy hit by the M-14's deadly 7.62 round kept functioning.


Springfield M1A National Match

The M1A is the civilian version of the M14, so is limited by design to semi-automatic fire. The scope-mounted M1A is my absolute favorite personal rifle. To me, it is superior to the M1 since magazine loading permits the scope to site directly along the barrel.

Operation: Semiautomatic, Gas Operated
Caliber: .30 (.30-06)
Length: 43.6 in. (1103 mm)
Weight unloaded: 9 lb 8 oz (4.37 kg)
Barrel: 24 in. 4 grooves, right hand twist
Magazine: 8 round internal box, clip loaded, clip ejected after last round fired
Muzzle: velocity 2800 fps, 2692 ft-lb Muzzle Energy
500 yds: 1918 fps, 1362 ft-lbs
Ammunition: .30-06 Cartridge, Ball, caliber 30, M2, 150 gr, 50 gr charge
Effective Range: 440 yds
Classification: "Standard" from 1936 until M14 adopted in 1957
Total production: Approx. 4,040,000

For Targeting


Each click of either elevation or windage changes the strike of the bullet approximately one inch on the target for every 100 yards of range, over its effective range.

Windage can be adjusted 16 clicks to the right or to the left of center index, and elevation can be adjusted from 0 to 72 clicks.


1. Windage zero.
Center your rear sight according to the index marks on the receiver and sight base. Center the front sight in the dovetail. Under no-wind conditions, fire a group at 100 yards. If the group is not centered, loosen the front sight and move it opposite to the direction of the group error. Repeat as necessary.

2. Elevation
For simple "Battle-Zero," Zero-in at 25 yards, then come up 1 click. This effectively zeros-in for 200 yards.
This should result in groups centered on a 4" diameter from 0 to 400 yards.

Different views of the 1941 M1

"In my opinion, the M1 Rifle is the greatest battle implement ever devised."
LGEN George S. Patton, Jr.

The M1 Garand is a full blown combat rifle with maxiumum range of 3,200 meters and maximum effective range of 400 meters.....or the greatest distance at which the weapon can be expected to fire accurately to inflict casualties or damage. Fully loaded with 8-round en bloc clip, cleaning kit in butt stock, sling and with stock of dense GI issue wood the M1 weighed in at 11-1/4 lbs. The M1 came into production in 1936 using the .30-06 rifle cartridge.

The M1 was the designated service rifle of World War II and the Korean War for the United States Military. It was designed for semi-automatic fire using a spring steel clip containing 8 rounds. This is where the term "clip" originated. All other rifles used a detachable or fixed magazine. (There is some discussion on whether this is accurate, if you have a comment, please enter it on our Bulletin Board.) The M1 Garand was designed for long range accuracy  i.e. battle zero was set for any target less than 200 yards It was the only rifle that had fully adjustable i.e. windage and elevation, rear sights.

The M1C, manufactured by Springfield Armory in late 1944-1945, mounted either a M81 or M82 scope, a T4 leather cheek pad, and an M2 flash hider.

The The original rear sight of the M1 would not hold adjustments very well, so a locking bar was added in late 1942 which could be tightened after sights were set.

The US Rifle M1 was the first semiautomatic rifle to be the standard small arm of the US Military, requiring a trigger pull to fire a round but automatically chambering the next round. This not only greatly increased the rate of fire over bolt-action rifles, but made it far easier to reacquire a target after each round. It was also the first semiautomatic rifle to be adopted by a major military power. It was the product of a genuine genius, John Cantius Garand. While the M1 Rifle was never officially referred to as the Garand, it is known by no other name so widely. First adopted in 1936, the M1 Rifle served the US in World War II, Korea, a host of "police actions" and interventions, and, in the hands of allies, in the Vietnam War. Even there the US Army fielded accurized sniper M1 rifles even though the M1 had by that time been supplanted by the M14 and later the M16.

To many the M1 Rifle has a classic elegance and grace characteristic of a bygone era, when steel was forged in white heat and walnut was carefully shaped for both form and function. "There will never be again such a rifle, so brimming with the genius of an individual mind, so well constructed to outlive us all, so sculpted as to ask the hand to caress."

Criticisms of the M1 are its weight, limited ammunition supply, and that single rounds could not be pushed in (8 round clip, or nothing), although this is actually possible. Also, the spent clip was automatically ejected after the last round was fired, making a distinctive sound, which could be fatal in close quarter or sniper operations. Partially loaded or fully loaded clips could be ejected by pulling the operating rod handle all the way back and then pushing the clip latch on the left side of the receiver. In the heat of close action it was possible to do this accidentally, as by pressing the latch with the left hand while firing from the hip.

As a supplement to the Garand the M1 Carbine was developed. It was totally different design philosophy with a smaller, less powerful cartridge and an effective range of 300 yds max. It weighed almost exactly 1/2 that of the M1 Garand. In many ways you could think of the M1 Carbine as a moderately powerful, two-handed, long-barreled auto pistol with a shoulder stock.

(Verbatim from FM 23-5 U.S. Rifle Caliber .30, M1)
Disassembly into the Three Main Groups :

A. The three main groups are the trigger housing group, the barrel and receiver group and the stock group.

B. To disassemble the rifle into the three main groups, first insure that the weapon is clear and then allow the bolt to go forward by depressing the follower with the right thumb and allowing the bolt to ride forward over the follower assembly. (note: careful, m1's are always hungry and eat thumbs).

C. Place the rifle butt against the left thigh, sights to the left. With the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, pull downward and outward on the rear of the trigger guard. Swing the trigger guard out as far as it will go and lift out the trigger housing group.

D. To separate the barrel and receiver from the stock lay the weapon on a flat surface with the sights up, muzzle to the left. With the left hand, grasp the rear of the receiver and raise the rifle. With the right hand, give a downward blow, grasping the small of the stock. This will separate the stock group from the barrel and receiver group.

The M1 is a robust weapon.

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