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The Last Winter, '52-'53 - 25id Bunkers

Very strongly built, protected from direct assault by deep mine-fields supporting heavily defended outposts, and backed by huge artillery systems, positions like these made significant changes of the trench-line across all central Korea virtually impossible. And yet, the slaughter went on for about another 8 months, as warriors fought and bled so that politicians might finally end this insane war which only their arrogance, ignorance and incompetence had allowed even to begin. Sadly, this is the way politicians often seem to perform, and Korea may have been most valuable by helping us understand and prepare forpractical warfare in the future. It does seem that Terrorist groups which must inevitably get possession of great weapons may again change the concept of war entirely, all too soon.

The Last Winter, '52-'53 - 25id Bunkers

In winter of '52 President-Elect Eisenhower visited the front lines near Chorwon, and then made it clear that he was only interested in ending the war with an honorable peace. At this time, about 700,000 CCF and NK troops were in the line or in reserve, facing about 350,000 UN infantry. The slaughter went on until July 27, 1953, during which time the CCF continually probed our lines to find points of weakness, and attacked wherever they thought they could improve their positions before the cease-fire. The Communists generally spent around 5 months digging large caves and underground locations for their troops all along the line. This protected them from UNC air and artillery, as well as the weather. UNC generally relied on a bunker system.

Here, as a component of IX Corps, 25id has strong bunker positions on the reverse slope somewhere in the White Horse, Triangle Hill, and Jackson Heights area, around October, 1952. 80% of bunkers like these were usually underground, and could be entered from the trenches which linked the entire front. Thick logs and sandbags, covered by a layer of loose sand, sticks and rocks gave protection from artillery and mortar hits.

Causes of the Korean Tragedy ... Failure of Leadership, Intelligence and Preparation

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