The official documentary sources upon which this book is based fall logically
into two categories, records seen originally in the Far East Command, and
Department of the Army records seen in Washington, D.C., and Alexandria,
Virginia. The former records, exploited during research from mid-1950 to early
1953, comprise a variety of record collections and papers some of which have
been destroyed as part of the normal records management processes. The remainder
have been returned to the United States and are now in custody of the National
Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration. Department
of the Army records examined in the Washington, D.C., area from 1953 to 1956
have been relocated from original repositories as part of the decentralization
of records during the late 1960's but remain in custody of the National Archives
and Records Service.
FAR EAST COMMAND RECORDS
Included under this grouping are official records which were maintained under
control of the Adjutant General, FEC, the records maintained with the General
Staff and Special Staff Sections of GHQ, FEC/UNC, the records of FEAF and
COMNAVFE, and the records of Eighth Army and X Corps. In addition, certain
"convenience" files were maintained for the Office of the Chief of Staff, GHQ,
FEC, and for the Office of the Commander in Chief Far East Command/United
Nations Command, all of which were made available for research. The latter files
contained memorandums and reports not normally available in the Adjutant
General's files. Within the substantial body of Far East Command records, the
following were especially important in preparation of this history:
Chief of Staffs GHQ FEC/ UNC Files
These files, originally located in the Dai Ichi building in Tokyo, adjacent
to CINCFE/CINCUNC's offices were not designed for permanent retention. They
reflect all major activities of CINCUNC and consist of personal messages and
memorandums, command letters, personal letters, and miscellaneous items. Their
particular value lies in the manner in which they reflect the day-to-day trends
in CINCUNC's thinking and in the fact that they contain his instructions to his
senior staff members.
Chief of Staff Daily Folders
Prepared by the SGS, GHQ, for presentation to the Chief of Staff each
morning, these folders contained copies of all pertinent communications between
Washington and Tokyo and between CINCUNC and his subordinate commanders.
Memorandums for record of important telephone calls, copies of miscellaneous
memorandums for record on meetings, and liaison officer reports on visits to
Korea are among the particularly valuable items in these files not elsewhere
available. These files, comprising twelve file drawers of material, were turned
over to the Military History Section, GHQ, FEC/UNC, in October 1951.
Under control of the ACofS G-3, GHQ, FEC/UNC, the Joint Strategic Plans and
Operations Group maintained separate files comprising all the joint planning
files of the theater. These files, arranged in books by subject, contained
detailed staff studies of contemplated operations, operations plans and
operations orders, interspersed with attached handwritten comments by key
officers of command.
Several recurring reports prepared within the FEC have provided information
and views on Korea not available elsewhere. These are:
The Annual Narrative Historical Report, GHQ FEC
At the outbreak of the Korean War, the only recurring historical report
prepared by the FEC was the Annual Narrative Historical Report, required by Army
regulations. The FEC had prepared such a report for 1949 and subsequently
prepared a report for the period 1 January-31 October 1950. Thus the period 25
June-31 October 1950 is covered, not by a monthly Command Report (see below),
but by the Annual Report which is less detailed. Nevertheless, the staff
sections of GHQ/FEC, particularly the ACofS, G-3, included in this Annual Report
unique information and documents on Korean planning and operations. In this
connection, the Eighth Army was relieved of the requirement for submitting a
historical report covering the period 25 June-31 October 1950 and such
historical records of Eighth Army's activities as exist for that period consist
of War Diaries. The period 1 January to 25 June 1950 is not covered by a
historical report from the Eighth Army.
The Monthly Command Report, FEC/UNC
Beginning on 1 November 1950, GHQ, FEC/UNC, prepared and submitted each month
to the Department of the Army a Command Report, describing in detail the
operations, activities, and problems of the command. The basic narrative report
is accompanied by annexes from each General and Special Staff Section of GHQ
FEC/UNC. The most valuable of these annexes, from the historian's viewpoint, are
those of the ACofS, G-3, the ACofS, G-2, and those prepared by the Commander in
Chief and the Chief of Staff GHQ FEC/UNC. The latter annex did not appear until
April 1951 when the Military History Section, GHQ FEC/UNC, assigned an X Corps Special Reports officer to prepare
this report for the Chief of Staff.
Daily Intelligence Summary and Special Reports
From the beginning of the war Daily Intelligence summaries were prepared by
the Theater Intelligence Division, ACofS, G-2, FEC/UNC. These summaries, in
booklet form, contain detailed information on enemy dispositions, order of
battle, the combat situation, and estimated enemy intentions. Each summary
contains several maps illustrating enemy and friendly action for each 24-hour
period. These Daily Intelligence summaries received wide distribution within the
command and were sent to Washington daily. Copies are filed with the Command
Report, GHQ FEC/UNC. In addition to these summaries, the ACofS, G-2, prepared in
similar format special intelligence reports on such subjects as enemy order of
battle, enemy LOC's, etc., copies of which were also placed with the monthly
Daily Operations Report
The ACofS, G-3, GHQ FEC/UNC, issued a Daily Operations Report, covering
friendly and enemy information, and setting forth in some detail the combat
operations for each 24-hour period. In many respects this report duplicates the
Daily Intelligence Summary, which, of the two, is more useful to the historian.
Copies of the Daily Operations Report are also available with the Command
Report, GHQ FEC/UNC.
X Corps Special Reports
The X Corps prepared special reports on the Inch'on landing, on the Wonsan
landing, on the Hungnam evacuation, and on the battle of the Soyang River. These
reports, although omitting derogatory information, are nonetheless useful in
establishing dates, locations, and the general chain of events. Copies are in
custody of the National Archives and Records Service.
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RECORDS
ACofS G-3 Correspondence Files
By far the most productive segment of Department of Army Records for the
historian interested in Korea are the correspondence files of the ACofS G-3, DA,
for the period. Bearing a file identification of G3 091 Korea, these voluminous
files record the actions and recommendations of the G-3 and of the Chief of
Staff, U.S. Army, and contain many important national policy papers. They
contain all pertinent Joint Chiefs of Staff documents received by the Department
of the Army together with the Army input to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. They are
complete files in that each action is backed up by all pertinent correspondence
and is carried through to the final recommendation or conclusion. Of particular
interest are thirty-one notebooks prepared by the Far East and Pacific Branch,
ACofS G-3, covering specific matters. These notebooks contain radios,
memorandums, and charts and tables used in briefing the ACofS G-3.
JSSC Committee Report to the JCS
In preparing testimony to be presented before the Senate committee
investigating the relief of General MacArthur, the Joint Chiefs of Staff
instructed the Joint Strategic Survey Committee to prepare a synthesis of all
matters relating to the relief of MacArthur and the conduct of the Korean War.
This committee presented the Joint Chiefs of Staff with a well-documented
narrative of exceptional value to the historian for the period 25 June 1950-30
April 1951. This document is filed with the Top Secret records of the ACofS G-3,
DA, for 1951 in custody of the National Archives and Records Service.
The exchanges between Washington and Tokyo, notably between the JCS and
CINCUNC, were carried on by radio communication. The messages sent and received
by the JCS/Department of the Army to CINCUNC/CINCFE are on file in the Staff
Communications Center, Office of the Chief of Staff, DA. Messages exchanged
between CINCUNC/ CINCFE and his subordinate commanders are in the Adjutant
General's file, FEC, at the Federal Records Center, GSA, Kansas City, Missouri.
Several important teleconferences were held in the first days of the Korean
War, followed by routine teleconferences for the remainder of the war, the
latter conferences usually on intelligence matters. Copies of these
teleconferences are on file in the Staff Communications Center, Office of the
Chief of Staff, DA.
The MacArthur Hearings
As part of the furor surrounding the relief of General MacArthur, the Senate
of the United States conducted an investigation. Virtually every responsible
official of the Department of Defense testified at the Senate hearings on this
matter. The record of this testimony has been printed by the U.S. Government
Printing Office in five volumes totaling 3,691 pages of testimony, an appendix
of selected documents, and an index. The rather formidable title of this
testimony is Military Situation in the Far East, Hearings Before the
Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations, United
States Senate, Eighty Second Congress, First Session, To Conduct an Inquiry into
the Military Situation in the Far East and the Facts Surrounding the Relief of
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur From His Assignments in that Area.
This material is cited in the present volume as the MacArthur Hearings.
General Smith's Chronicles
Major General Oliver Prince Smith, USMC, commander of the 1st Marine Division
during the first part of the Korean War, maintained a diary which he furnished
to the Historical Branch, G-3 Division, USMC. Capt. Nicholas Canzona and Mr.
Lynn Montross of that branch made available selected portions of that diary to
the author. The designation of this document is "Notes by Lt. Gen. Oliver P.
Smith on the Operations of the 1st Marine Division During the First Nine Months
of the Korean War."
The following books are the principal ones consulted in preparation of this
Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation. New York: W. W. Norton and
Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong: North to the Yalu. UNITED
STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR. Washington, 1961.
Cagle, Malcolm W., and Frank A. Manson. The Sea War in Korea.
Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1957.
Collins, J. Lawton. War In Peacetime. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1969.
Department of State. The Conflict in Korea. Washington, 1951.
Department of State. In Quest of Peace and Security: Selected Documents on
American Foreign Policy, 1941-1951. Washington, 1951.
Department of State. Korea, 1945 to 1948. Washington, 1948.
Department of State. Korea's Independence. Washington, 1947.
Field, James A., Jr. History of U.S. Naval Operations: Korea. Washington, 62.
Futrell, R. Frank. The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950-1953.
New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1961.
Goodrich, Leland M. Korea: A Study of U.S. Policy in the United
Nations. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1956.
Grajdanzev, Andrew J. Modern Korea. New York: John Day Company, 1944.
McCune, George M., with Arthur L. Gray, Jr. Korea Today. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1950.
Nelson, M. Frederick. Korea and the Old Orders in Eastern Asia. Baton
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1946.
Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army. Korea
1951-1953. Washington, 1956.
Ridgway, Matthew B. The Korean War. Garden City: Doubleday &
Company, Inc., 1967.
Sawyer, Maj. Robert K. Military Advisors in Korea: KMAG in Peace and
War. Washington, 1963.
Truman, Harry S. Memoirs: Years of Trial and Hope, Vol. II. New York:
Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1956.
Whiting, Allen S. China Crosses the Yalu. New York: The Macmillan