Maintenance includes all measures taken to keep the rifle in
operating condition. This includes normal cleaning, inspection
for defective parts, repair, and lubrication.
21. Cleaning, Materials, Lubricants, and
(a.) Cleaning Materials.
(1.) Bore cleaner (cleaning compound solvent (CR)) is
used primarily for cleaning the bore; however, it may be used on
all metal parts for temporary (1-day) protection from rust.
(2.) Hot, soapy water or boiling water is no substitute
for bore cleaner and will only be used when bore cleaner is not
(3.) Drycleaning solvent is used for cleaning rifles
which are coated with grease, oil, or corrosion-preventative
(4.) Stubborn carbon deposits are removed by soaking in
carbon removing compound (PCIII-A) and brushing. This process
must be followed by the use of drycleaning solvent.
Caution: Individual protective measures
must be taken when using compound PCIII-A.
(1.) Lubricating oil, general purpose (PL special) is
used for lubricating the rifle at normal temeratures.
(2.) Lubricating oil, weapons (LAW) is used for low
temperatures (below 0 degrees).
(3.) OE 10 engine oil may be used as a field expedient
under combat conditons when the oils prescribed in (1.)
and (2.) above cannot be obtained. However, the weapon
should be cleaned and lubricated with the proper lubricants as
soon as possible
(4.) Rifle grease should be applied to those working
surfaces as shown in figure 33.
A complete set of maintenance equipment (figure
34) and (figure 35)
is stored in the stocks of the M1 and M1C rifles and consists of:
- M10 cleaning rod (4 sections with handle and plastic
- Small arms bore cleaning brush.
- Lubrication case.
- Chamber cleaning brush. (NOTE: Insure the M1
chamber brush is used. The M14 rifle chamber brush is
1/2-inch shorter and will not clean the M1 chamber).
22. Cleaning the Rifle
(a.) The rifle must be cleaned after it has been fired
because firing produces primer fouling, powder ashes, carbon, and
metal fouling. The ammunition now manufactured has a noncorrosive
primer which makes cleaning easier, but no less important. The
primer still leaves a deposit that may collect moisture and
promote rust if it is not removed. The cleaning described below
will remove all deposits except metal fouling which is relatively
uncommon and is removed by maintenance personnel.
(1.) Chamber. Remove the patch holder from the cleaning
rod and insert two patches about halfway through the slot. Dip
the patches in bore cleaner, then wring or squeeze the excess
fluid from the patches. Screw the M10 cleaning rod together (less
the patch holder) and insert it all the way into the bore. Flare
the patches out, then insert the patch holder with the wet
patches into the chamber. Push the threaded end into the chamber
until it touches the cleaning rod. Hold it there with one hand
and screw the cleaning rod and the patch holder together. Pull
the patches to the chamber; at the same time turning the rod
clockwise. Turn the rod several times, wiping the chamber
thoroughly. After the chamber has been thoroughly cleaned use the
chamber brush in the following manner:
- (a) Screw a section of the M10 cleaning rod into a
threaded hole of the driver ratchet.
- (b) Place the brush into the chamber of the
- (c) Allow the rifle bolt to close slowly against
the end of the driver ratchet.
- (d) Using the rod section as a handle, rotate the
driver clockwise and counter-clockwise to loosen and
clean residue from the chamber.
(2) Bore. To clean the bore saturate the bore brush
with cleaning compound solvent (rifle bore cleaner) and -
- (a) Insert the bore brush into the chamber. Insert
the cleaning rod into the bore and screw the brush onto
- (b) Pull the brush through the bore. Remove the
brush and repeat the procedure as often as required to
clean the bore.
- (c) Then use one cleaning patch dampened with bore
cleaner in the following manner:
- Place the patch in the patch holder and insert it into
- Insert the cleaning rod (less the patch holder) into the
bore and screw it onto the patch holder.
- Pull the cleaning rod through the bore. Repeat this
procedure using as many patches as required until the
patches come through the bore clean.
(3) Gas cylinder lock screw with valve assembly. Remove
carbon deposits by using bore cleaner, then wipe the part and oil
it lightly (do not use abrasives). Check the valve to see that it
is not held open by particles of dirt or sand.
(4) Piston of operating rod. Remove carbon from the
piston with bore cleaner. Take care not to damage the piston. Oil
it lightly after cleaning (do not use abrasives).
(5) Gas Cylinder. Clean the gas cylinder with bore
cleaner and with patches.
(6) Face of the bolt. Clean the face of the bolt with a
patch and bore cleaner, paying particular attention to its inside
edges. Remove the bore cleaner with dry patches and oil the part
(7) All other parts. Use a dry cloth to remove all dirt
or sand from other parts and exterior surfaces. Apply a light
coat of oil to the metal parts and rub raw linseed oil into the
wooden parts. Care must be taken to prevent linseed oil from
getting on metal parts.
(8) Cleaning frequency. The rifle must be thoroughly
cleaned no later than the evening of the day it is fired. For
three consecutive days thereafter check for evidence of fouling
by running a clean patch through the bore and inspecting it. The
bore should be lightly oiled after each inspection.
23. Normal Maintenance
(a.) When in use, the rifle should be inspected daily
for evidence of rust and general appearance. A light coat of oil
(PL Special) should be maintained on metal parts.
(b.) The daily inspection should also reveal any
defects such as burred, worn, or cracked parts. Defects should be
reported to the armorer for correction.
(c.) A muzzle plug should never be used on the rifle.
It causes moisture to collect in the bore, which causes bore rust
that is a safety hazard.
(d.) Obtaining the proper rear sight tension is
extremely important; without it the sight will not hold its
adjustment in elevation. During normal maintenance and prior to
firing, the rear sight must be checked for correct sight tension.
The indications of improper sight tension are: elevation knob
extremely difficult to turn, and elevation knob turn freely
without an audible click.
(1) If the elevation knob is extremely difficult to
turn, the soldier must rotate the windage knob nut (with the
scew-driver portion of the M10 cleaning rod handle)
counterclockwise one click at a time. After each click an attempt
should be made to turn the elevation knob. Repeat this process
until the elevation knob can be turned without extreme
(2) In the event the elevation knob is extremely loose
and the rear sight aperture will not raise, the windage knob nut
must be turned in a clockwise direction, one click at a time,
until the aperture can be raised.
(3) To check for proper tension the procedures listed
below should be followed:
- (a) Raise the aperture to its full height.
- (b) Lower the aperture two clicks.
- (c) Grasp the rifle with the fingers around the
small of the stock and exert downward pressure on the
aperture with the thumb of the same hand.
(4) If the aperture drops, sight tension must be
adjusted. To do this the windage knob nut must be turned in a
clockwise direction one click at a time until the aperture can no
longer be pushed down. If the proper tension cannot be obtained,
the rifle must be turned in to the unit armorer.
24. Special Maintenance
(a.) Before firing the rifle, the bore and the chamber
should be cleaned and dried. A light coat of oil should be placed
on all other metal parts except those which come in contact with
(b.) Before firing, rifle grease should be applied to
the parts indicated in figure 33.
A small amount of grease is taken up on the stem of the grease
container cap and is applied at each place. Rifle grease is not
used in extremely cold temperatures or when the rifle is exposed
to extremes of sand and dust.
(c.) In cold climates (temperatures below freezing) the
rifle must be kept free of moisture and excess oil. Moisture and
excess oil on the working parts cause them to operate sluggishly
or fail completely. The rifles must be disassembled and wiped
with a clean, dry cloth. Drycleaning solvent may be used if
necessary to remove oil or grease. Parts that show signs of wear
may be wiped with a patch lightly dampened with lubricating oil
(LAW). It is best to keep the rifle as close as possible to
outside temperatures at all times to prevent the collectin of
moisture which occurs when cold metal comes in contact with warm
air. When the rifle is brought into a warm room, it should not be
cleaned until it has reached room temperature.
(d.) In hot, humid climates or if exposed to salt water
or salt-water atmosphere, the rifle must be inspected thoroughly
each day for signs of moisture and rust. It should be kept
lightly oiled with special preservative lubricating oil. Raw
linseed oil should be applied frequently to the wooden parts to
(e.) In hot, dry climates the rifle must be cleaned
daily or more often to remove sand and/or dust from the bore and
working parts. In sandy areas, the rifle should be kept dry. The
muzzle and receiver should be kept covered during sand and dust
storms. Wooden parts must be kept oiled with raw linseed oil to
prevent drying. The rifle should be lightly oiled when sandy or
dusty conditions decrease.
(f.) Special instructions on caring for the rifle when
it is subject to nuclear, biological, or chemical contamination
can be found in TM 3-220 and FM-21-40.
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