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The Foundation of Freedom is the Courage of Ordinary People

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Lt. Gen. William M. Hoge, Commanding General, U.S. IX Corps, left, holds the lanyard which will fire the 75,000th shell to be fired by the corps since the start of the conflict in Korea. Brig. Gen. William N. Gillmore, Commanding General, Corps Artilllery, stands to the right of General Hoge. This day also marked the end of the first year fighting in Korea. 25 June 1951.

This was a brutal war. When the fighting stabilized between main defensive lines, into the "Outpost War", thousands of rounds of artillery were often exchanged by both sides in a given day, in small hills like Old Baldy. Almost incomprehensible, even when you were exposed to it yourself. Maybe especially then.


For Korea, 1950 was a year of brutal aggression, bloody counter-attack, entrapment and ended in disarray and tragedy.

Before daylight on Sunday, June 25, 1950, the North Korea People's Army attacked south across the 38th parallel. North Korean Premier Kim Il Sung's eight combat-ready divisions, mostly veterans of WWII and China's Civil War, led by 120 Soviet T34 medium tanks and extensive mobile artillery, crushed the ill-equipped and greatly outnumbered ROK forces.

The United States and United Nations quickly came to South Korea's aid. We stopped North Korea at the Pusan Perimeter, cut them off with General MacArthur's brilliant amphibious assault at Inchon, and drove the enemy back to the Yalu, almost winning the war at a single stroke.

But, in November, China entered the war in force. Our armies were ambushed, routed, and driven back into South Korea.

In early 1951, both sides had savage reverses, the year ending with Talks which dragged on for two years to an inconclusive Cease Fire.

Our major adversary, the Chinese army, was experienced at fluid warfare, opportunistic, disciplined, and very brave. American troops were also brave, but during the first 10 months or so of the war we were not well led at the company and field grade levels, or above.

But we learned.

We re-defined and re-established the leadership requirements of our officer corps. Our combat units again developed into teams, as we had in WWII. We fought the Chinese to a standstill, and then drove them back to about the original national boundaries.

South Korea is free today, because of the valor of men like those in these photos.

As many another young man, I really went to war for the excitement and to test myself. Yet now, as I grow old, I remember with great pride that I was once their comrade in arms.


Causes of the Korean Tragedy ... Failure of Leadership, Intelligence and Preparation

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