The Foundation of Freedom is the Courage of Ordinary People
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Chinese infantry Attacks
After their initial victories, the CCF retreated to assess the results.
Realizing we were highly vulnerable, when MacArthur ordered a "home by Christmas" drive, CCF forces attacked in force
both against 8th Army in the West and our 1st Marine Division in the East. To escape encirclement north of Chongchon,
Eighth Army started a retreat which quickly turned into a rout. In the East, our Marines "attacked toward the rear" at
the Chosin Reservoir and with the rest of X Corps fought their way to rescue at Hungnam.
40th Corps tries to encircle US 24th Infantry
Division, April 24, 1951
24ID had suffered badly when the CCF first
came into the war in September 1950, and had been
in the brunt of the fighting almost from the
beginning. Their commanding general William
F. Dean was captured at Taejon in the Pusan
The CCF Phase Campaign had
substantial initial success. Eventually, they
would overextend themselves and face danger of
entrapment when General Ridgway sent Eighth Army
into a decisive counter attack from which the CCF
never recovered until Truman stopped our
advancing forces mostly above the 38th Parallel.
But, at the beginning, they ran wild yet again.
This Chinese photograph in the Beijing Korean War
Museum says elements of CCF 40th Army threatened
to encircle the US 24th Infantry Division east of
Causes of the Korean Tragedy ... Failure of Leadership, Intelligence and Preparation
The Foundations of Freedom are the Courage of Ordinary People and Quality of our Arms